The first Egyptian flag of modern Egypt was established in 1923 by a royal decree. The color was green with a white crescent and three white stars in the middle. In 1958, a Presidential Decree established a new flag for the United Arab Republic which comprised a merger of Syria and Egypt. The current flag has three colors red, white and black with golden eagle in the middle; it is equal rectangles in shape. The current flag was established in 1984, it consists of three equal transverse rectangles, the higher rectangle is red, which refers to blazing, shining, hope and power, the middle rectangle is white which refers to clearness and inside the white rectangle there is a golden eagle which is the strongest birds refers to the power and civilization of Egypt, while the lower rectangle is black refers to ages of retardation and colonization.
Language : Arabic is the official language of the state.
Capital of Egypt :
Cairo is the capital of the arab republic of Egypt, it is a deep rooted city occupies a remarkable position among the world capitals, It is the largest city in the Middle East and Africa in terms of the population with around 8 million people, the distance of the city is around 3085 km.
Climate and Weather :
There are several factors affects the climate of Egypt, the most important factors are the location, landform, the general order of the pressure, the low- pressure areas and bodies of water, and all of that contributed to create a number of distinguished climatic regions in Egypt. Egypt is located in the tropical dry climate excluding the northern borders which enter among the warm temperate zone that has, like the Mediterranean climate, a hot dry summer and little rains increase on the coast in winter. Egypt climate could be differentiated in two climatic seasons, the dry hot summer which extend from May to October, and the temperate little rain winter which extends from November to April. Annual average temperature in Lower Egypt is 20°C day and 7°C night while in Upper Egypt the annual average temperature reaches 25 °C day and 17 °C night.
Astronomer Location: :
Arab Republic of Egypt astronomer between latitudes 22 and 32 north of the equator and between longitudes 24 O37 located east of Greenwich line.
The area of the Arab Republic of Egypt is about 1,002,000 sq km and inhabited area of 78990 sq km, represents 7.8% of the total area.
Located Egypt in the northeast corner of the continent of Africa, bordered on the north Mediterranean coast with a length of 995 km, It is bordered to the east of the Red Sea coast with a length of 1941 km, It is bordered in the north-east of Palestine and Israel 265-km-long, and is bounded by West Libya along the 1115-km-long line, and is bordered to the south Sudan 1280 km long.
The Nile River :
The Nile River is the longest in the world, flows from south to north, then splits into two branches, the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, The Nile is the longest river with a long of 6690 km from its headwaters in Lake Tanganyika up to its Estuary in the Mediterranean and covers an area of $ 1.9 million sq km and extends in eleven countries, Tanzania, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Sudan, Egypt, South Sudan.
The High Dam:
The high dam is one of the most important projects organizing the Nile water, Egypt celebrates annually in January the anniversary of the establishment of the High Dam, which was inaugurated on the 9th of January 1960, as the High Dam is the greatest and the largest engineering project in the 20th century, from an architectural and engineering perspective, the high dam was built to protect Egypt from the high floods, which were overflowing the country.
Suez Canal :
History records that Egypt is the first state made an industrial canal on its land when King Senwosret III inaugurated the first canal in 1874 BC to link the Red Sea to the Nile. in the November 17, 1869, Khedive Ismail developed the idea by opening the Suez Canal connecting Mediterranean "at Port Said" to Red Sea "at Suez". The canal has a separate geographical location makes it the shortest link between East and West. Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956, then closed the channel five times, and the last closing was because of the circumstances of the aggression in June 1967 "and continued closed for 8 years", and the canal was reopened for navigation on June 5, 1975. Egypt has opened the New Suez Canal on August 6, 2015, in order to enhance the benefits of the old canal and achieve a greater proportion of duplication for the conduct of vessels in both directions without stopping in the waiting areas inside the canal and reduce the passing time transit of ships, and increasing the capacity of the passage of ships in the light of the expected growth of world trade in the future, and linked to the Suez Canal area development project ,it also targets to raise the degree of confidence in the canal as the best global shipping lane and reduce the value of alternative channels of the competitors. The fruits of the New Suez Canal will appear in increasing the Egyptian national income of hard currency and provide a large number of job opportunities for young people and the creation of new communities.
The Arab Republic of Egypt depends, for its water supply, on three main water resources, surface water from the Nile River and the rain, water from Seoul and the underground water.
Oil and Mineral resources:
Egypt has a great wealth of important minerals such as phosphate, crude iron, as well as gold and oil.
The Egyptian Economy:
The Egyptian Economy is the second largest economy in the Arab region after Saudi Arabian economy, with a total $ 500.9 bn GDP according to official estimates for the year (2010), and the second African economy after South Africa, and the 11th economy in the Middle East in terms of income per capita. Egypt's economy is characterized by various sources of income as it depends mainly on agriculture, Suez Canal revenues, tourism, taxation, cultural and media production, petroleum exports, and remittances from the Egyptians working abroad (more than three million Egyptians working abroad is concentrated mostly Gulf Arab states, the United States, Europe and Australia. in the wake of the revolution of January 2011, the state is doing its best to restore the Egyptian economy back on track and overcome the enormous obstacles facing it , by endorsing the internal efforts and openness to the world in an effort to create a dynamic economic and financial performance.
The Egyptian pound =100 piasters